Pottery

Pottery

Undoubtedly, one of the most ancient human arts is pottery which in many cases is used to define the age of the discovered ancient samples and, thus the age of civilizations. The first sample ever discovered belongs to 8000 BC made without using a pottery wheel and furnace but heated beside fire. In many cases primitive man has made earthenware imitating figure of baskets made of three branches and in some other cases he would use those baskets as the mold of his earthenware. In 3500 BC some simple pottery wheel was invented making a great revolution in pottery industry after which a variety of techniques as decoration, drawing, carving and relief on earthenware were invented. Pottery wheel, having been invented, enamel work made the most important revolution in pottery fields. The primary material of pottery is some sort of mud composed of different kinds of earths with water. The applied earths are divided into two main sorts as Kaolin and white earth for ceramic productions and the secondary earth as clay is used to make earthenware. The pottery productions are produced through different methods as pressing, sheeting, tubing, and molding methods and another method using a pottery wheel out of which the pressing, sheeting and tubing methods need more skill and talent of the artist while in the methods using a pottery wheel or grout or molding method the grout is poured into molds to form a ceramic work. Here it should be mentioned that half of the earthenware and ceramics are heated in the furnaces at 950 to 1000 centigrade. The production in this process is called biscuit which is used for enameling and arraying.


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